Before presenting the pictures and technical details about TVS2000’s, it will be usefull to give a brief history about them, this provides better understanding about their importance and role within TCDD.
In early 1990’s, the already-bad image of railways in Turkey was going even worse. The flagship of TCDD was Ankara-Istanbul line, and this line was losing market share against roads. The highway between Ankara-Istanbul opened, and this reduced the travel time by car between Ankara-Istanbul considerably. The travel by train was longer and the only way for TCDD to attract people is to provide comfort and safety. Safety was already good but lack of comfort in trains looked worse when a new generation buses was introduced. At this time, the best train between Ankara-Istanbul was Fatih Express, and it was equipped with blue-red Pullman stock, which will be shown later in these pages. Even this was not very comfortable. The ride of train was rough, noisy. The trains didn’t have air conditioning, and this created a serious temperature and dust (because of opened windows) in summer. In winters, the temperature problem was even bigger. The old-fashioned steam radiator heaters near the feet were impossible to control properly, the temperature inside the cars alternate between horribly hot and ice cold, whether the radiator were heating or not. The radiators even sometimes melted the shoes of passengers. Fatih Express was an exception to the temperature problem in winters because it had blowers instead of radiators, but no exception to the problem in summers. The gangway doors between the cars were very hard to open for children and old people.
In late 1992, TCDD declared that a new train started to be operated. The name of this train was “Başkent Express”. The cars of this train seemed to undo the entire bad image about the trains. The new suspension provided a smooth ride. Noise insulation provided a silent ride. High-quality interior, comfortable seats, automatic air conditioning, automatic passage doors were other features, keys to the comfortable journeys. This was the TVS2000! Now, it’s time to introduce them.
TVS2000 is the design of Tüvasaş (Türkiye Vagon Sanayi A.Ş.)
TVS2000 Livery and Spotting Features
TVS2000’s were first produced as Pullman cars. Subsequently, dining cars, 2nd class compartment cars and 1st class sleeping cars have been produced.
General spotting features: TVS2000’s are white with blue and red lines on the lower part of the side. The big and wide red swing-plug door is another good spotting feature. TVS2000 is the only passenger car in TCDD with swing-plug doors. All TVS2000’s have fixed windows at one or two sides. Some have half opened windows at one side.
TVS2000 Pullman Car
The Pullman version has unopened windows on both sides. Some of the Pullman cars also have luggage compartment. In the sidewalls marking is WSPlm. The seat arrangement is 2+1, and the car carries 60 passengers.
TVS2000 2nd class compartment car
This type has half-opened windows at one side. The sidewall marking is Bm. Between two windows at one end of the car, a big yellow "2" sign is affixed stating that the car is 2nd class. Inside, there are 11 compartments of 6 seats, adding up to a total capacity of 66 seats. All compartments have independent heating and cooling controls, equipped with automatic thermostats to provide constant temperature.
The compartment version of TVS2000 in Dogu Express, ready to depart to Kars from Ankara, being hauled by DE2. 2001. 2001. Photo Gökçe Aydin.
This train is sometimes equipped with TVS2000 compartment cars. 2001. Photo Gökçe Aydin.
TVS2000 Dining Car
The most obvious spotting features of this are the "Yemekli Vagon" marks on the both sidewalls and two consecutive small windows of the kitchen at one end, on one side. One notes that the ride of dining car is rough compared to other TVS2000 stock.
TVS2000 dining car of the same Izmir Mavi Treni. 2001. Photo Gökçe Aydın.
TVS2000 Sleeping Car
Just as the compartment car, the sleeping car version of TVS2000 has half-opened windows at one side. At one end, “Yataklı Vagon” is written. These cars are 1st class only and they are up to Trans Euro Nuit (TEN) standards.
TVS2000 sleeping car of Ankara Express, the night train between Ankara and Istanbul. This train is only composed of sleeping cars. 2001. Photo Gökçe Aydın.
TVS2000 Generator car
TVS2000s have really powerful heating and cooling system. System is so powerful that it can make the train inside ice cold at the hottest day in summers, and horribly hot in the coldest day of winter. Most of the diesel locos in TCDD fleet do not have electric supply for heating or air conditioning. Even if they were modified, the power draw on the 2400HP main engine might create a problem. So, in order TVS2000s to work on the non-electrified lines, these generator cars have been developed. Although their appearance is much different from other TVS2000 stock, and they don’t have air conditioning and comfortable seats, they can be considered to be TVS2000 because they also ride on Y-32 bogies, which is the key feature of TVS2000. Their maximum speed is 160km/h. These cars have a vital role for TCDD, because they help to avoid steam heating, which is much less efficient, useful and reliable than electric heating.
TVS2000 generator car is attached to Cukurova Mavi Treni. The train has just arrived at Adana station. 2001. Photo Gökçe Aydın.
TVS2000 Technical Data
|Length from Buffer to Buffer:||26,4m|
|Height of Floor:||1,25m|
|Body shell:||welded steel|
|Wheel Diameter New/worn:||920/870 mm|
|Braking System:||Electro-pneumatically controlled disc brake (2 disks per axle), plus one shoe brake par wheel|
|Maximum Speed:||160 km/h|
|Doors:||swing plug with electro-pneumatic controls. The doors close and lock automatically when train reaches 5km/h, and cannot be opened until the train stops.|
|Gangway doors:||with electro-pneumatic controls|
|Automatic air conditioning:||(35 KW cooling, 40 KW heating, 120m3/h fresh air).|
|Full Public Address system, indirect lighting, double glazing|
TVS2000’s ride on Y32 bogies. SNCF and De Dietrich company first designed this bogie in 1970 for the famous "Corail" family of rolling stock. This Y32 which is still successfully used today introduced at the time many novelties such as disk braking. The Corail coaches are still the regular stock for all express passengers trains in France (outside TGV). This bogie was designed from the beginning for 200 km/h and provides a very good comfort up to that speed. The disk brakes allowed the removal of much of the shoe brakes, which were a source of vibration at high speed.
The Y32 uses coiled springs for primary and secondary suspension (known as Saint Urbain coils in France). The wide coil of the secondary stage is the characteristic feature of the Y32. The coils are protected from dust and stones by a rubber casing.
Tüvasaş does the manufacturing of the Y32 in Turkey under a license agreement, which was signed on 10 February 1989 with the De Dietrich Company. De Dietrich had already successfully exported the Y32 in several other countries such as Netherlands, Portugal or Morocco.
Y32 main characteristics:
- Primary Suspension: coiled spring with hydraulic shock absorbers
- Secondary Suspension: coiled spring with hydraulic shock absorbers
- Braking: 2 disk per axle and one shoe per wheel (mostly to maintain a clean wheel surface)
- Tolerable maximum speed: 200 km/h
- Length between axles: 2,560 m
- Weight: 5980 kg.
Factory picture shoes the Y32 without the coil rubber casing.
Y32 under a TVS2000. 2001. Photo Gökçe Aydin.