Home > Steam > Steam

Steam engines

Quick jump to:

Warning: non TCDD steam loco (industrial or otherwise) and locos out of inventory before TCDD was founded are not listed.


During the Ottoman time, the various private companies procured their motive power mostly from the home country of their stockholders. Then, having no national engines manufacturing, TCDD continued to purchase imported engines. Consequently Turkish engines are coming mostly from Germany, England, France and United States. TCDD relied on existing proven design and the western railway enthusiasts will often recognize engines already seen at home.

The Turkish network is quite demanding. It is a mountain network with steep gradient and sharp curves. On the Anatolian plateau the average altitude is near 1000 m. The weather is hot and dry in the summer. But it is often forgotten that, inland, the winter is very cold and with a lot of snow.

For these reasons, Turkish engines are "small wheels", four and then five driving axles became quickly the norm, the first Decapod (1'E) where used in the 1920's. Since speed was not feasible, the same engines could be used on freight as well as passenger trains and most of the engines are of "mixed" type.

Double heading plus banking was common: it was not rare to see four Decapods working on the same train. But articulated engines were not successful in Turkey: one Garratt have been tried and a few Mallets have been used in the 1920's but they were taken out very quickly. Mallet should have been very successful but my guess is that the lack of capital finance prevented TCDD from buying them. Maybe someone can provide additional explanation?

Engines numbering

The numbering scheme used by TCDD for its steam engines relies on the number of axles:

  • The first digit indicates the number of driving axles.
  • The second digit indicates the total number of axles of the engines.
  • The following digits are the engine serial number. Two digits are used for tank engines; three digits are used for tender engines.

For example:

  • Bilecik banking engines n°5701 is a 1'E1't tank engine (2-10-2t)
  • Engine n° 56501 refers to a 1'E (2-10-0). Decapods being quite common on the Turkish network, the number 56xxx is frequently encountered.

As seen above, TCDD is not using a strict "class" number or designation for each type of engines. However in most cases, serial numbers in sequence are usually used for identical engines. Therefore, the first numbers of the series are used as a proxy for class number. For example 56301 refers to the Vulcan Foundry Decapods, 56501 is the type BR52 Kriegsloks. Unfortunatly, there are several case of identical engines numbered in non following sequence. A classic example is the CFOA 1'C numbered by TCDD 34001 to 34018 and 34046 to 34048.

The serial numbers are not indicating the years of acquisition. For example, the 56301 are 1948/49 engines whereas the 56911 are 1926/27 engines. Numbers are not indicatives of the gauge either. And of course, like any self-respecting railway, TCDD as some overlapping numbers, missing numbers and other oddities!

First World War

Soon after the start of the First World War the Ottoman Empire signed an alliance treaty with Germany (August 2, 1914) and declared war on France and UK on November 5, 1914. This started a time of great turmoil for Ottomans railways. The Ottomans had to fight on multiple fronts several thousand kilometers apart (Dardanels, Baghdad, Palestine, Erzurum, …) and the meager railways resources were soon stretched out. The German provided assistance to complete the Baghdad Railways and they send war engines, mostly G8 but also G51, G54, G71, G72 and G81.

Some British ROD 060 GWR Dean Goods found their way to the ORC and then to TCDD. They were presumably shipped to Turkey when Istanbul and part of the CFOA was under British control in 1918/1922.

Second World War

TCDD kept expanding its network throughout the 1930's opening important route (Sivas line in 1932, Zonguldak in 1937, Erzurum line in 1939). Thus motive power needs greatly increased and TCDD placed orders for locomotives in UK and Germany. The beginning of the Second World War disturbed the delivery of these new engines. Turkey remained neutral during the Second World War and the Turkish government played smartly the odds and found itself courted by the British and the German. Both agreed to deliver war engines to TCDD. Consequently, some of the most popular war engine could be seen working in the 50's in Turkey:

On top of all, these engines were working with units from world war one (mostly German G8), and at the Syrian Border, they met DHP Austerity 2-10-0!

See also:

Standard Gauge Tank Locomotives List

Nbr. fromtoAxleTot. QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
22012204B't41889Sharp StewartEx ORC
22512251B't11874KraussEx CO
33013310C't101918HenschelEx Turkish Army, WW1 order
33263328C't31896Esslingen SaronnoEx CFOA
33263329C't31913HanomagNbr 3326, 3327, 3329: ex Baghdad Rly.
33303330C't11885Dick KerrEx MTA
33513355C't51911/12MaffeiEx SCP
33613362C't21888/91StephensonEx ORC
33713371C't11885 Ex ORC
340134081'C't81905/09BorsigEx CFOA
34113413C1't31911StephensonEx ORC Rly
350135051'C1't51909MaffeiEx Baghdad Rly, Ex Mersin Adana Rly
351135161'C1't61923Corpet-LouvetEx SCP
355135601'C1't101911/12MaffeiEx CO
370137082'C2't81925HenschelOrdered by CFOA but delivered to TCDD, Similar to KPEV T18
45014503D1't31911StephensonEx ORC
570157041'E1't419512 Henschel in 1951, 2 by Jung in 1952Similar to BR85, for banking at Bilecik

Standard Gauge Tender Locomotives List

23001 to 24002

Nbr. fromtoAxleTot. QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
23001230061'B61884Sharp StewartEx ORC
24001240022'B21890NeilsonEx ORC

33001 to 33506

Nbr. fromtoAxleTot. QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
3300133010C101890Esslingen SaronnoEx CFOA
3301133018C81889Sharp StewartEx ORC
3302133026C61911StephensonEx ORC
3303133032C21868/70SwindonEx ORC, supplied by ROD during WW1
3303133036C6 Esslingen SaronnoEx Cenup, identical to 33001
3304133041C11883SwindonEx Great Western Railway (GB), supplied by ROD during WW1, ex ORC
3350133508C81872HanomagEx CO
34001340181'C191911/14Hanomag / BorsigEx CFOA, Ex Baghdad Rly
34019340251'C7  Ex KPEV G54
34026340321'C71894MaffeiType G52 Ex CFOA
34041340451'C51905CailEx Baghdad Rly
34046340481'C31914Hanomag, BorsigEx Baghdad Rly, ex Cenup, identical to 34001
34061340681'C81933Henschel, KruppSimilar to BR24
35001350092'C91900MaffeiEx SCP
35501355032'C31897Wiener NeustadtEx CO
35504355062'C31908MaffeiEx CO

44001 to 46253

Nbr. fromtoAxleTot. QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
4400144083D841912 Type G8, Various origins
4409144094D41906StephensonEx ORC Rly
4410144102D21915HenschelType G81, Ex Prussian Rly, Ex German Army
4410344106D41912MaffeiEx CFOA
4410744108D21909HenschelEx CFOA
4450144509D91910HenschelEx CO
45001450621'D621927/35Nohab / TubizeSimilar to KPEV G82
45101451151'D151909HenschelEx CFOA
45121451321'D121912HumboltEx SCP Rly
45151451701'D201940/41North BritishLMS Stanier 8F
45171452201'D501943ALCO, Baldwin, LimaUSRA S160
45501455181'D181924Batignolles, CreusotEx CO
46001460102'D131926HenschelDesign derived from KPEV P8
46011460252'D121932Henschel, KruppVery similar to 46001
46051460611'D1'111937HenschelSimilar to BR41
46101461061'D1'61929/32StephensonEx ORC Rly
46201462291'D1'291942ALCO, Baldwin, LimaUSATC S200 "Middle East" Class
46230462531'D1'241942ALCO, Baldwin, LimaUSATC S200 "Middle East" Class, Ex MEF /IqSR, purchased in 1946.

55001 to 57027

Nbr. fromtoAxleTot. QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
5500155049E491922/27Nohab, Schwarzkopff, HenschelType G10
56001560791'E791937/41Henschel, Krupp, BMAG, Esslingen 
56080561161'E371948Vulcan Foundry (GB), Beyer Peacock 
56117561661'E501949Skoda, CKD 
56201562021'E21961TCDDT56201 "Black Wolf" from Eskisehir workshop, T56202 "Grey Wolf" from Sivas workshop, based on Skoda design
56301563881'E881947/49Vulcan Iron Works (USA)"Skyliners"
56501565531'E531943Henschel, Borsig, MBA, Schwarzkopff, WLFBR52 "Kriegslok"
56701567481'E481943Schneider, Fives Lille, SFCM Cail, BatignollesBR44ük, ex SNCF 150X. Purchased from SNCF in 1955
56901569101'E101917HenschelTransition design between the G121 and the BR44.
56911569181'E81926/27Corpet-LouvetEx SCP Rly
57001570271'E1'271932/37Henschel, Krupp, Schwarzkopff, 

Narrow Gauge Locomotives List

Nbr. fromtoAxleTot. QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
22912291B't11874La Meuse1000mm, Mudanya Bursa
33913397C't71893Krauss750mm, Ilica Palamutluk
3390133950C't501914?Russian-built750mm, Sarikamis Erzurum
3395133985C't351916Alco750mm, Sarikamis Erzurum
34801348041'C't41924Krauss, Henschel750mm, Samsun Carsamba
34851348511'C't11912La Meuse1000mm, Mudanya Bursa
46001460041'D1'4 TCDD Eskisehir600mm, KL46001, Ankara and Izmir Park

Broad Gauge Locomotives

These loco were taken over along with the broad gauge line to Kars.

Nbr. fromtoAxleTotal QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
3490134901C1't11913Kolomna5' Gauge
4490144905D5  5' Gauge
4495144951D1  5' Gauge

Steam railcar

TCDD had one class of steam railcar. These units saw little service and where quickly withdrawn.

Nbr. fromtoAxleTotal QtyFirst yearManufacturerRemark
Otomotris 1Otomotris 3(1A)'2'31932Esslingen 
A rare view of an odd unit

A rare view of this odd unit. Scan Eljas Pölhö from "Dampftriebwagen" by Rolf Ostendorf

Articulated steam engine in Turkey

Despite a network combining sharp curves and steep gradients, TCDD never acquired articulated steam engines and stick to Decapods.

Private companies before TCDD experimented some articulated locomotives. It is likely that some of these engines were still in operation when TCDD took over from their previous owners. TCDD itself reports some large engines to UIC.

UIC statistics for TCDD, engines with 6 or more driving axles:

1936 (1935 info repeated)1

However, we have no evidence of TCDD actually giving inventory number to any of these locomotives.

Nbr. fromtoAxleTotal builtFirst yearManufacturerCompanyType
6016031C'C31918Magyar Allami Vas Acélés GépgyarakCOMallet
2252251D'D'111927Beyer PeacokORCGarrat

The Russian army used briefly some 1067mm gauge Garrat on the eastern front during WW1.